A monumental cemetery built by eastern Africa's first herders near Lake Turkana, Kenya
Hildebrand, EA (Hildebrand, Elisabeth A.)[ 1,2 ]; Grillo, KM (Grillo, Katherine M.)[ 3 ]; Sawchuk, EA (Sawchuk, Elizabeth A.)[ 1,4 ]; Pfeiffer, SK (Pfeiffer, Susan K.)[ 5,6,7,8 ]; Conyers, LB (Conyers, Lawrence B.)[ 9 ]; Goldstein, ST (Goldstein, Steven T.)[ 4 ]; Hill, AC (Hill, Austin Chad)[ 10 ]; Janzen, A (Janzen, Anneke)[ 4 ]; Klehm, CE (Klehm, Carla E.)[ 11 ]; Helper, M (Helper, Mark)[ 12 ]; Kiura, P (Kiura, Purity)[ 13 ]; Ndiema, E (Ndiema, Emmanuel)[ 13 ]; Ngugi, C (Ngugi, Cecilia)[ 13 ]; Shea, JJ (Shea, John J.)[ 1,2 ]; Wang, H (Wang, Hong)[ 14,15 ]
2018-09-04
发表期刊PNAS
卷号115期号:36页码:8942-8947
文章类型期刊论文
摘要

Monumental architecture is a prime indicator of social complexity, because it requires many people to build a conspicuous structure commemorating shared beliefs. Examining monumentality in different environmental and economic settings can reveal diverse reasons for people to form larger social units and express unity through architectural display. In multiple areas of Africa, monumentality developed as mobile herders created large cemeteries and practiced other forms of commemoration. The motives for such behavior in sparsely populated, unpredictable landscapes may differ from well-studied cases of monumentality in predictable environments with sedentary populations. Here we report excavations and ground-penetrating radar surveys at the earliest and most massive monumental site in eastern Africa. Lothagam North Pillar Site was a communal cemetery near Lake Turkana (northwest Kenya) constructed 5,000 years ago by eastern Africa’s earliest pastoralists. Inside a platform ringed by boulders, a 119.5-m2 mortuary cavity accommodated an estimated minimum of 580 individuals. People of diverse ages and both sexes were buried, and ornaments accompanied most individuals. There is no evidence for social stratification. The uncertainties of living on a “moving frontier” of early herding—exacerbated by dramatic environmental shifts—may have spurred people to strengthen social networks that could provide information and assistance. Lothagam North Pillar Site would have served as both an arena for interaction and a tangible reminder of shared identity.

关键词Monumentality Pastoralism Africa Holocene Early Food Production
DOI10.1073/pnas.1721975115
收录类别SCI
语种英语
引用统计
文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.ieecas.cn/handle/361006/9675
专题黄土与第四纪地质国家重点实验室(2010~)
作者单位1.Department of Anthropology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-4364;
2.Turkana Basin Institute, 00502 Nairobi, Kenya;
3.Department ofAnthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611;
4.Department of Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, 07745 Jena,Germany;
5.Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 2S2, Canada;
6.Department of Archaeology, University of Cape Town, 7701Rondebosch, South Africa;
7.Department of Anthropology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052;
8.Center for the Advanced Study ofHuman Paleobiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052;
9.Department of Anthropology, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208;
10.Department of Anthropology, Dartmouth University, Hanover, NH 03755;
11.Department of Anthropology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO80309;
12.Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712;
13.National Museums of Kenya, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya;
14.IllinoisState Geological Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820
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Hildebrand, EA ,Grillo, KM ,Sawchuk, EA ,et al. A monumental cemetery built by eastern Africa's first herders near Lake Turkana, Kenya[J]. PNAS,2018,115(36):8942-8947.
APA Hildebrand, EA .,Grillo, KM .,Sawchuk, EA .,Pfeiffer, SK .,Conyers, LB .,...&Wang, H .(2018).A monumental cemetery built by eastern Africa's first herders near Lake Turkana, Kenya.PNAS,115(36),8942-8947.
MLA Hildebrand, EA ,et al."A monumental cemetery built by eastern Africa's first herders near Lake Turkana, Kenya".PNAS 115.36(2018):8942-8947.
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