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PM2.5 emissions and source profiles from open burning of crop residues
Ni, Haiyan1,2,3; Tian, Jie1,2,3; Wang, Xiaoliang2,4; Wang, Qiyuan1,2; Han, Yongming1,2,5; Cao, Junji2,5; Long, Xin1,2,3; Chen, L-W. Antony2,4,6; Chow, Judith C.1,4; Watson, John G.1,4; Huang, Ru-Jin2,7; Dusek, Ulrike8
2017-11-01
发表期刊ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT
卷号169期号:2017页码:229-237
文章类型Article
摘要Wheat straw, rice straw, and corn stalks, the major agricultural crop residues in China, were collected from six major crop producing regions, and burned in a laboratory combustion chamber to determine PM2.5 source profiles and speciated emission factors (EFs). Organic carbon (OC) and water-soluble ions (the sum of NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3- and SO42-) are major constituents, accounting for 43.1 +/- 83% and 27.4 +/- 14.6% of PM2.5, respectively. Chloride (Cl-) and water-soluble potassium (K+) are the dominant ionic species, with an average abundance of 14.5 +/- 8.2% and 6.4 +/- 4.4% in PM2.5, respectively. The average K+/Cl- ratio is similar to 0.4, lower than 2.8-5.4 for wood combustion. Similarity measures (i.e., Student's t-test, coefficient of divergence, correlations, and residual to uncertainty ratios) show the crop profiles are too similar for the species measured to be resolved from one another by receptor modeling. The largest difference was found between rice straw and corn stalk emissions, with higher OC and lower Cl- and K+ abundances (50%, 8%, and 3% of PM2.5, respectively) for corn stalks; lower OC, and higher Cl- and K+ abundances (38%, 21%, and 10% of PM2.5, respectively) for rice straw. Average EFs were 4.8 +/- 3.1 g kg(-1) for OC, 1.3 +/- 0.8 g kg(-1) for Cl- and 0.59 +/- 0.56 g kg(-1) for K+. Flaming and smoldering combustions resulted in an average modified combustion efficiency (MCE) of 0.92 +/- 0.03, and low elemental carbon (EC) EFs (0.24 +/- 0.12 g kg(-1)). OC/EC ratios from individual source profiles ranged from 12.9 +/- 4.3 for rice straw to 24.1 +/- 13.5 for wheat straw. The average K+/EC ratio was 2.4 +/- 1.5, an order of magnitude higher than those from residential wood combustion (0.2-0.76). Elevated emission rates were found for OC (387 Gg yr(-1)) and Cl- (122 Gg yr(-1)), accounting for 44% and 14% of 2008 PM2.5 emissions in China. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
关键词Source Profiles Emission Factors Emission Rates Crop Residues Biomass Burning
WOS标题词Science & Technology ; Life Sciences & Biomedicine ; Physical Sciences
DOI10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.08.063
关键词[WOS]FINE-PARTICLE EMISSIONS ; CHEMICAL SOURCE PROFILES ; PARTICULATE MATTER ; ORGANIC-CARBON ; ELEMENTAL CARBON ; UNITED-STATES ; TRACE GASES ; SOURCE APPORTIONMENT ; SAMPLING ARTIFACTS ; AEROSOL-PARTICLES
收录类别SCI
语种英语
WOS研究方向Environmental Sciences & Ecology ; Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
WOS类目Environmental Sciences ; Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
WOS记录号WOS:000413882400019
引用统计
被引频次:1[WOS]   [WOS记录]     [WOS相关记录]
文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.ieecas.cn/handle/361006/5393
专题粉尘与环境研究室
作者单位1.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Earth Environm, SKLLQG, Xian 710061, Shaanxi, Peoples R China
2.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Earth Environm, KLACP, Xian 710061, Shaanxi, Peoples R China
3.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China
4.Desert Res Inst, Div Atmospher Sci, 2215 Raggio Pkwy, Reno, NV 89512 USA
5.Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Inst Global Environm Change, Xian 710049, Shaanxi, Peoples R China
6.Univ Nevada, Dept Environm & Occupat Hlth, Las Vegas, NV 89154 USA
7.Paul Scherrer Inst, Lab Atmospher Chem, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland
8.Univ Groningen, ESRIG, Ctr Isotope Res CIO, Groningen, Netherlands
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Ni, Haiyan,Tian, Jie,Wang, Xiaoliang,et al. PM2.5 emissions and source profiles from open burning of crop residues[J]. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT,2017,169(2017):229-237.
APA Ni, Haiyan.,Tian, Jie.,Wang, Xiaoliang.,Wang, Qiyuan.,Han, Yongming.,...&Dusek, Ulrike.(2017).PM2.5 emissions and source profiles from open burning of crop residues.ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT,169(2017),229-237.
MLA Ni, Haiyan,et al."PM2.5 emissions and source profiles from open burning of crop residues".ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT 169.2017(2017):229-237.
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