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Elevation-dependent warming in mountainregions of the world
Pepin,N[1]; Bradley,R.S.[2]; Diaz,H.F.[3]; Baraer,M.[4]; Caceres,E.B.[5]; Forsythe,N.[6]; Fowler,H.[6]; Greenwood,G.[7]; Hashmi,M.Z.[8]; Liu,XD[9]; Miller,J.R.[10]; Ning,L.[11]; Ohmura[12]; Palazzi,E.[13]; Rangwala,I.[14]; Schöner,W.[15]; Severskiy,I.[16]; Shahgedanova,M.[17]; Wang,MB[18]; Williamson,SN[19]; Yang,DQ[20]

There is growing evidence that the rate of warming is amplifed with elevation, such that high-mountain environments experience more rapid changes in temperature than environments at lower elevations. Elevation-dependent warming (EDW) can accelerate the rate of change in mountain ecosystems, cryospheric systems, hydrological regimes and biodiversity. Here we review important mechanisms that contribute towards EDW: snow albedo and surface-based feedbacks; water vapour changes and latent heat release; surface water vapour and radiative flux changes; surface heat loss and temperature change; and aerosols. All lead to enhanced warming with elevation (or at a critical elevation), and it is believed that combinations of these mechanisms may account for contrasting regional patterns of EDW. We discuss future needs to increase knowledge of mountain temperature trends and their controlling mechanisms through improved observations, satellite-based remote sensing and model simulations.

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Document Type期刊论文
Affiliation1.Department of Geography, Buckingham Building, Lion Terrace, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3HE, UK;
2.Climate System Research Center,University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA;
3.CIRES, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, Colorado 80305,USA;
4.ETS–University of Quebec, Montreal, Quebec H3C 1K3, Canada;
5.Instituto Nacional de Meterología e Hidrología, Loja, Iñaquito 700 y Corea, Ecuador;
6.School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK;
7.University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland;
8.Water Resources Section, Global Change Impact Studies Centre (GCISC), PO BOX 3022, Islamabad, Pakistan;
9.SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment,Chinese Academy of Sciences and CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Beijing 100101, China;
10.Department of Marine and CoastalSciences, Rutgers University, New Jersey 08901, USA;
11.University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA;
12.ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich,Switzerland;
13.Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate – National Research Council (ISAC-CNR), I-10133 Torino, Italy;
14.CIRES/Western WaterAssessment; Physical Sciences Division, NOAA ESRL, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA;
15.University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria;
16.Institute of Geography,050010 Almaty, Kazakhstan;
17.University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AH, UK;
18.Shanxi University, 030006 Taiyuan, China;
19.University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta TG6 2R3, Canada;
20.National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, S7N 3H5 Saskatoon, Canada
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Pepin,N[1],Bradley,R.S.[2],Diaz,H.F.[3],et al. Elevation-dependent warming in mountainregions of the world[J]. NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE,2015,5(2015):424-430.
APA Pepin,N[1].,Bradley,R.S.[2].,Diaz,H.F.[3].,Baraer,M.[4].,Caceres,E.B.[5].,...&Yang,DQ[20].(2015).Elevation-dependent warming in mountainregions of the world.NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE,5(2015),424-430.
MLA Pepin,N[1],et al."Elevation-dependent warming in mountainregions of the world".NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE 5.2015(2015):424-430.
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