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Persistent sulfate formation from London Fog toChinese haze
Wang,GH(Wang,Gehui)[1,2,3,4,5]; Zhang,RY(Zhang,Renyi)[3,4,5]; Gomez,M E(Gomez, Mario E)[3,4,7]; Yang, LX(Yang,Lingxiao)[3,8]; Zamora, M L(Zamora, Misti Levy)[3]; Hu,M(Hu,Min)[6]; Lin,Y(Lin,Yun)[3]; Peng,JF(Peng,Jianfei)[3,6]; Guo,S(Guo,Song)[3,6]; Meng,JJ(Meng,Jingjing)[1,2,9]; Li,JJ(Li,Jianjun)[1,2]; Cheng,CL(Cheng,Chunlei)[1,2,9]; Hu,TF(Hu,Tafeng)[1,2]; Ren,YQ(Ren,Yanqin)[1,2,9]; Wang,YS(Wang,Yuesi)[10]; Gao,J(Gao,Jian)[11]; Cao,JJ(Cao,Junji)[1,2]; An,ZS(An,Zhisheng)[1,2,12]; Zhou,WJ(Zhou,Weijian)[1,2,13]; Li,GH(Li,Guohui)[1,2]; Wang,JY(Wang,Jiayuan)[1,2,9]; Tian,PF(Tian,Pengfei)[3,14]; Marrero-Ortiz,W(Marrero-Ortiz,Wilmarie)[3,4]; Secrest,J(Secrest,Jeremiah)[3,4]; Du,ZF(Du,Zhuofei)[6]; Zheng,J(Zheng,Jing)[6]; Shang,DJ(Shang,Dongjie)[6]; Zeng,LM(Zeng,Limin)[6]; Shao,M(Shao,Min)[6]; Wang,WG(Wang,Weiguo)[3,15,16]; Huang,Y(Huang,Yao)[1,2,9]; Wang,Y(Wang,Yuan)[17]; Zhu,YJ(Zhu,Yujiao)[3,18]; Li,YX(Li,Yixin)[3]; Hu,JX(Hu,Jiaxi)[3]; Pan,BW(Pan,Bowen)[3]; Cai,L(Cai,Li)[3,19]; Cheng,YT(Cheng,Yuting)[1,2,9]; Ji,YM(Ji,Yuemeng)[3,20]; Zhang,F(Zhang,Fang)[3,12]; Rosenfeld,D(Rosenfeld, Daniel)[3,21]; Liss, P S(Liss,Peter S)[3,22]; Duce, R A(Duce,Robert A)[3]; Kolb, C E(Kolb, Charles E)[3,23]; Molina, M J(Molina, Mario J)[24]
Source PublicationPNAS

Sulfate aerosols exert profound impacts on human and ecosystem health, weather, and climate, but their formation mechanism remains uncertain. Atmospheric models consistently underpredict sulfate levels under diverse environmental conditions. From atmospheric measurements in two Chinese megacities and complementary laboratory experiments, we show that the aqueous oxidation of SO2 by NO2 is key to efficient sulfate formation but is only feasible under two atmospheric conditions: on fine aerosols with high relative humidity and NH3 neutralization or under cloud conditions. Under polluted environments, this SO2 oxidation process leads to large sulfate production rates and promotes formation of nitrate and organic matter on aqueous particles, exacerbating severe haze development. Effective haze mitigation is achievable by intervening in the sulfate formation process with enforced NH3 and NO2 control measures. In addition to explaining the polluted episodes currently occurring in China and during the 1952 London Fog, this sulfate production mechanism is widespread, and our results suggest a way to tackle this growing problem in China and much of the developing world.

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Document Type期刊论文
Affiliation1.aState Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061, China;
2.Key Laboratory ofAerosol Chemistry and Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061, China;
3.Department of Atmospheric Sciences, TexasA&M University, College Station, TX 77843;
4.Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77840;
5.School of Geographic Sciences, EastChina Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China;
6.State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of EnvironmentalSciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;
7.Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199;
8.School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China;
9.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
10.Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China;
11.Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100000,China;
12.Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
13.Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China;
14.Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change ofthe Ministry of Education, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China;
15.State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry ofUnstable and Stable Species, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China;
16.Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences,Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China;
17.Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125;
18.Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China;
19.School of ElectricalEngineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China;
20.School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Institute of Environmental Health and PollutionControl, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China;
21.Program of Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Earth Sciences, The Hebrew Universityof Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel;
22.School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom;
23.Aerodyne Research, Inc.,Billerica, MA 01821-3976; and
24.Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Wang,GH,Zhang,RY,Gomez,M E,et al. Persistent sulfate formation from London Fog toChinese haze[J]. PNAS,2016,113(48):13630-13635.
APA Wang,GH.,Zhang,RY.,Gomez,M E.,Yang, LX.,Zamora, M L.,...&Molina, M J.(2016).Persistent sulfate formation from London Fog toChinese haze.PNAS,113(48),13630-13635.
MLA Wang,GH,et al."Persistent sulfate formation from London Fog toChinese haze".PNAS 113.48(2016):13630-13635.
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