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Young people’s burden: requirement of negative CO2emissions
Hansen,J(Hansen,James)1; Sato,M(Sato,Makiko)1; Kharecha,P(Kharecha,Pushker)1; Schuckmann,Kv(Schuckmann,Karina von)2; Beerling,D.J(Beerling,David J)3; Cao,JJ(Cao,Junji)4; Marcott,S(Marcott,Shaun)5; Masson-Delmotte,V(Masson-Delmotte,Valerie)6; Prather,M J(Prather,Michael J)7; Rohling,E J(Rohling, Eelco J)8,9; Shakun,J(Shakun,Jeremy)10; Smith,P(Smith,Pete)11; Lacis,A(Lacis,Andrew)12; Russell,G(Russell,Gary)12; Ruedy,R(Ruedy,Reto)12,13; Hansen,James
Source PublicationEarth System Dynamics
Other AbstractGlobal temperature is a fundamental climate metric highly correlated with sea level, which implies that keeping shorelines near their present location requires keeping global temperature within or close to its preindustrial Holocene range. However, global temperature excluding short-term variability now exceeds +1°C relative to the 1880–1920 mean and annual 2016 global temperature was almost +1.3°C. We show that global temperature has risen well out of the Holocene range and Earth is now as warm as it was during the prior (Eemian) interglacial period, when sea level reached 6–9m higher than today. Further, Earth is out of energy balance with present atmospheric composition, implying that more warming is in the pipeline, and we show that the growth rate of greenhouse gas climate forcing has accelerated markedly in the past decade. The rapidity of ice sheet and sea level response to global temperature is difficult to predict, but is dependent on the magnitude of warming. Targets for limiting global warming thus, at minimum, should aim to avoid leaving global temperature at Eemian or higher levels for centuries. Such targets now require negative emissions, i.e., extraction of CO2 from the air. If phasedown of fossil fuel emissions begins soon, improved agricultural and forestry practices, including reforestation and steps to improve soil fertility and increase its carbon content, may provide much of the necessary CO2 extraction. In that case, the magnitude and duration of global temperature excursion above the natural range of the current interglacial (Holocene) could be limited and irreversible climate impacts could be minimized. In contrast, continued high fossil fuel emissions today place a burden on young people to undertake massive technological CO2 extraction if they are to limit climate change and its consequences. Proposed methods of extraction such as bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) or air capture of CO2 have minimal estimated costs of USD89–535 trillion this century and also have large risks and uncertain feasibility. Continued high fossil fuel emissions unarguably sentences young people to either a massive, implausible cleanup or growing deleterious climate impacts or both.
Indexed BySCI
Project NumberRC-2015-029
Funding OrganizationLeverhulme Trust Research Centre Award ; Leverhulme Trust Research Centre Award
Citation statistics
Cited Times:169[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorHansen,James
Affiliation1.Climate Science, Awareness and Solutions, Columbia University Earth Institute, New York, NY 10115, USA
2.Mercator Ocean, 10 Rue Hermes, 31520 Ramonville St Agne, France
3.Leverhulme Centre for Climate Change Mitigation, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK
4.Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry and Physics, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Xi’an, 710061, China
5.Department of Geoscience, 1215 W. Dayton St., Weeks Hall, University of Wisconsin-Madison,Madison, WI 53706, USA
6.Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et del’Environnement (CEA-CNRS-UVSQ) Université Paris Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
7.Earth System Science Department, University of California at Irvine, CA, USA
8.Research School of Earth Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra, 2601, Australia
9.Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre,Southampton, SO14 3ZH, UK
10.Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA
11.Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, 23 St Machar Drive,Aberdeen, AB24 3UU, UK
12.NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY 10025, USA
13.SciSpace LLC, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025, USA
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Hansen,J(Hansen,James),Sato,M(Sato,Makiko),Kharecha,P(Kharecha,Pushker),等. Young people’s burden: requirement of negative CO2emissions[J]. Earth System Dynamics,2017,8(2017):577-616.
APA Hansen,J.,Sato,M.,Kharecha,P.,Schuckmann,Kv.,Beerling,D.J.,...&Hansen,James.(2017).Young people’s burden: requirement of negative CO2emissions.Earth System Dynamics,8(2017),577-616.
MLA Hansen,J,et al."Young people’s burden: requirement of negative CO2emissions".Earth System Dynamics 8.2017(2017):577-616.
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