A monumental cemetery built by eastern Africa's first herders near Lake Turkana, Kenya
Hildebrand, Elisabeth A.1,2; Grillo, Katherine M.3; Sawchuk, Elizabeth A.1,4; Pfeiffer, Susan K.5,6,7,8; Conyers, Lawrence B.9; Goldstein, Steven T.4; Hill, Austin Chad10; Janzen, Anneke4; Klehm, Carla E.11; Helper, Mark12; Kiura, Purity13; Ndiema, Emmanuel13; Ngugi, Cecilia13; Shea, John J.1,2; Wang, Hong14,15
2018-09-04
发表期刊PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
卷号115期号:36页码:8942-8947
文章类型Article
摘要Monumental architecture is a prime indicator of social complexity, because it requires many people to build a conspicuous structure commemorating shared beliefs. Examining monumentality in different environmental and economic settings can reveal diverse reasons for people to form larger social units and express unity through architectural display. In multiple areas of Africa, monumentality developed as mobile herders created large cemeteries and practiced other forms of commemoration. The motives for such behavior in sparsely populated, unpredictable landscapes may differ from well-studied cases of monumentality in predictable environments with sedentary populations. Here we report excavations and ground-penetrating radar surveys at the earliest and most massive monumental site in eastern Africa. Lothagam North Pillar Site was a communal cemetery near Lake Turkana (northwest Kenya) constructed 5,000 years ago by eastern Africa's earliest pastoralists. Inside a platform ringed by boulders, a 119.5-m(2) mortuary cavity accommodated an estimated minimum of 580 individuals. People of diverse ages and both sexes were buried, and ornaments accompanied most individuals. There is no evidence for social stratification. The uncertainties of living on a "moving frontier" of early herding-exacerbated by dramatic environmental shifts-may have spurred people to strengthen social networks that could provide information and assistance. Lothagam North Pillar Site would have served as both an arena for interaction and a tangible reminder of shared identity.
关键词Monumentality Pastoralism Africa Holocene Early Food Production
WOS标题词Science & Technology
DOI10.1073/pnas.1721975115
关键词[WOS]HUMID PERIOD ; HOLOCENE ; VALLEY ; ARCHITECTURE ; ARCHAEOLOGY ; LANDSCAPE ; SAHARA ; CATTLE ; RIFT
收录类别SCI ; SSCI
语种英语
WOS研究方向Science & Technology - Other Topics
WOS类目Multidisciplinary Sciences
WOS记录号WOS:000443555000051
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被引频次:1[WOS]   [WOS记录]     [WOS相关记录]
文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.ieecas.cn/handle/361006/5339
专题黄土与第四纪地质国家重点实验室(2010~)
作者单位1.SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Anthropol, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA
2.Turkana Basin Inst, Nairobi 00502, Kenya
3.Univ Florida, Dept Anthropol, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA
4.Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Dept Archaeol, D-07745 Jena, Germany
5.Univ Toronto, Dept Anthropol, Toronto, ON M5S 2S2, Canada
6.Univ Cape Town, Dept Archaeol, ZA-7701 Rondebosch, South Africa
7.George Washington Univ, Dept Anthropol, Washington, DC 20052 USA
8.George Washington Univ, Ctr Adv Study Human Paleobiol, Washington, DC 20052 USA
9.Univ Denver, Dept Anthropol, Denver, CO 80208 USA
10.Dartmouth Coll, Dept Anthropol, Hanover, NH 03755 USA
11.Univ Colorado, Dept Anthropol, Boulder, CO 80309 USA
12.Univ Texas Austin, Jackson Sch Geosci, Austin, TX 78712 USA
13.Natl Museums Kenya, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
14.Univ Illinois, Prairie Res Inst, Illinois State Geol Survey, Champaign, IL 61820 USA
15.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Earth Environm, State Key Lab Loess & Quaternary Geol, Xian 710061, Shaanxi, Peoples R China
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Hildebrand, Elisabeth A.,Grillo, Katherine M.,Sawchuk, Elizabeth A.,et al. A monumental cemetery built by eastern Africa's first herders near Lake Turkana, Kenya[J]. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,2018,115(36):8942-8947.
APA Hildebrand, Elisabeth A..,Grillo, Katherine M..,Sawchuk, Elizabeth A..,Pfeiffer, Susan K..,Conyers, Lawrence B..,...&Wang, Hong.(2018).A monumental cemetery built by eastern Africa's first herders near Lake Turkana, Kenya.PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,115(36),8942-8947.
MLA Hildebrand, Elisabeth A.,et al."A monumental cemetery built by eastern Africa's first herders near Lake Turkana, Kenya".PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 115.36(2018):8942-8947.
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