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Environmental and health risks of VOCs in the longest inner-city tunnel in Xi & rsquo;an, Northwest China: Implication of impact from new energy vehicles
Xu, Hongmei1,2; Feng, Rong1; Wang, Zexuan1; Zhang, Ningning2; Zhang, Renjian3; He, Kailai1; Wang, Qiyuan2; Zhang, Qian4; Sun, Jian1; Zhang, Bin1; Shen, Zhenxing1,2; Ho, Steven Hang Sai5; Cao, Junji2
Corresponding AuthorXu, Hongmei(xuhongmei@xjtu.edu.cn)
2021-08-01
Source PublicationENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
ISSN0269-7491
Volume282Pages:9
AbstractTraffic source-dominated volatile organic compound (VOC) samples were collected during four time-intervals in a day (I: 7:30-10:30, II: 11:00-14:0 0, III: 16:30-19:30, and IV: 20:00-23:0 0) in a tunnel in summer, 2019, in Xi & rsquo;an, China. The total measured VOC (TVOC) in periods I and III (rush hours, 107.2 +/- 8.2 parts per billion by volume [ppbv]) was 1.8 times that in periods II and IV (non-rush hours, 58.6 +/- 13.8 ppbv), consistent with the variation in vehicle numbers in the tunnel. The considerably elevated ethane and ethylbenzene levels could have been attributed to emissions from compressed natural gas vehicles and the rapid development of methanol-fueled taxis in Xi & rsquo;an in 2019. The mixing ratios of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) contributed 9.4%-12.7% to TVOCs, and the contributions were nearly 40% higher in periods I and III than in II and IV, indicating that BTEX levels were strongly affected by vehicle emissions. The indicators of motor vehicle emission, namely ethylene, propylene, toluene, m/p-xylenes, o-xylene, and propane, contributed to more than half of the ozone formation potential in this study. The noncarcinogenic risks of VOCs in this study were within the in-ternational safety standard, whereas the carcinogenic risks exceeded the standard by 2.3-4.6 times, suggesting that carcinogenic risks were more serious than noncarcinogenic risks. VOCs presented 2.2 and 1.4 times noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks during rush hours than during non-rush hours, respectively. Notably, the carcinogenic risk in period IV was comparable with that in period III; however, the vehicle numbers and VOC mixing ratios were the lowest at night, which may have attributed to the increasing number and proportion of methanol M100-fueled vehicles in the tunnel. Therefore, VOCs emitted by new energy vehicles should also be seriously considered while evaluating fossil fuel vehicle emissions. (c) 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
KeywordVOCs Tunnel Methanol-fueled vehicles BTEX OFP Health risk
DOI10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117057
WOS KeywordVOLATILE ORGANIC-COMPOUNDS ; POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS ; GASOLINE PASSENGER CARS ; ON-ROAD MEASUREMENTS ; EMISSION FACTORS ; VEHICULAR EMISSION ; SAO-PAULO ; HONG-KONG ; EXHAUST ; TRENDS
Indexed BySCI ; SCI
Language英语
Funding ProjectKey Research and Development Program of Shaanxi Province[2018-ZDXM3-01] ; Key Research and Development Program of Shaanxi Province[2018ZDCXL-SF-02-05] ; National Natural Science Foundation of China[41877376] ; National Natural Science Foundation of China[41907188]
WOS Research AreaEnvironmental Sciences & Ecology
Funding OrganizationKey Research and Development Program of Shaanxi Province ; National Natural Science Foundation of China
WOS SubjectEnvironmental Sciences
WOS IDWOS:000660292100005
PublisherELSEVIER SCI LTD
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ieecas.cn/handle/361006/16775
Collection粉尘与环境研究室
Corresponding AuthorXu, Hongmei
Affiliation1.Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Engn, Xian 710049, Peoples R China
2.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Earth Environm, Key Lab Aerosol Chem & Phys, SKLLQG, Xian 710061, Peoples R China
3.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Atmospher Phys, Key Lab Middle Atmosphere & Global Environm Obser, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China
4.Xian Univ Architecture & Technol, Key Lab Northwest Resource Environm & Ecol, MOE, Xian 710055, Peoples R China
5.Desert Res Inst, Div Atmospher Sci, Reno, NV USA
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Xu, Hongmei,Feng, Rong,Wang, Zexuan,et al. Environmental and health risks of VOCs in the longest inner-city tunnel in Xi & rsquo;an, Northwest China: Implication of impact from new energy vehicles[J]. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION,2021,282:9.
APA Xu, Hongmei.,Feng, Rong.,Wang, Zexuan.,Zhang, Ningning.,Zhang, Renjian.,...&Cao, Junji.(2021).Environmental and health risks of VOCs in the longest inner-city tunnel in Xi & rsquo;an, Northwest China: Implication of impact from new energy vehicles.ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION,282,9.
MLA Xu, Hongmei,et al."Environmental and health risks of VOCs in the longest inner-city tunnel in Xi & rsquo;an, Northwest China: Implication of impact from new energy vehicles".ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION 282(2021):9.
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