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Soot reference materials for instrument calibration and intercomparisons: a workshop summary with recommendations
Baumgardner, D (Baumgardner, D.)[1]; Popovicheva, O (Popovicheva, O.)[2]; Allan, J (Allan, J.)[3]; Bernardoni, V (Bernardoni, V.)[4]; Cao, J (Cao, J.)[5]; Cavalli, F (Cavalli, F.)[6]; Cozic, J (Cozic, J.)[7]; Diapouli, E (Diapouli, E.)[8]; Eleftheriadis, K (Eleftheriadis, K.)[8]; Genberg, PJ (Genberg, P. J.)[9]; Gonzalez, C (Gonzalez, C.)[10]; Gysel, M (Gysel, M.)[11]; John, A (John, A.)[12]; Kirchstetter, TW (Kirchstetter, T. W.)[13]; Kuhlbusch, TAJ (Kuhlbusch, T. A. J.)[12,14; Laborde, M (Laborde, M.)[11]; Lack, D (Lack, D.)[15,16]; Muller, T (Mueller, T.)[17]; Niessner, R (Niessner, R.)[18]; Petzold, A (Petzold, A.)[19]; Piazzalunga, A (Piazzalunga, A.)[20]; Putaud, JP (Putaud, J. P.)[6]; Schwarz, J (Schwarz, J.)[15,16]; Sheridan, P (Sheridan, P.)[15]; Subramanian, R (Subramanian, R.)[21]; Swietlicki, E (Swietlicki, E.)[9]; Valli, G (Valli, G.)[4]; Vecchi, R (Vecchi, R.)[4]; Viana, M (Viana, M.)[22]

Soot, which is produced from biomass burning and the incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels, has been linked to regional and global climate change and to negative health problems. Scientists measure the properties of soot using a variety of methods in order to quantify source emissions and understand its atmospheric chemistry, reactivity under emission conditions, interaction with solar radiation, influence on clouds, and health impacts. A major obstacle currently limiting progress is the absence of established standards or reference materials for calibrating the many instruments used to measure the various properties of soot. The current state of availability and practicability of soot standard reference materials (SRMs) was reviewed by a group of 50 international experts during a workshop in June of 2011. The workshop was convened to summarize the current knowledge on soot measurement techniques, identify the measurement uncertainties and limitations related to the lack of soot SRMs, and identify attributes of SRMs that, if developed, would reduce measurement uncertainties. The workshop established that suitable SRMs are available for calibrating some, but not all, measurement methods. The community of users of the single-particle soot-photometer (SP2), an instrument using laser-induced incandescence, identified a suitable SRM, fullerene soot, but users of instruments that measure light absorption by soot collected on filters did not. Similarly, those who use thermal optical analysis (TOA) to analyze the organic and elemental carbon components of soot were not satisfied with current SRMs. The workshop, and subsequent, interactive discussions, produced a number of recommendations for the development of new SRMs, and their implementation, that would be suitable for the different soot measurement methods.

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Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorBaumgardner, D (Baumgardner, D.)[1]
Affiliation1.Centro Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Aut ´ onoma de M ´ exico, Mexico City, Mexico ;
2.Nuclear Physics, Moscow, State University, Moscow, Russia;
3.University of Manchester, Manchester, UK;
4.Department of Physics, Universita degli Studi di Milano & National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Milan, Italy;
5.Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xian, China;
6.European Commision – Joint Research Centre – Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra, Italy;
7.Laboratory of Glaciology and Geophysics of the Environment, St Martin d’Heres Cedex, France;
8.E.R.L, Institute of Nuclear Technology & Radiation Protection, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, 15310, Attiki, Greece;
9.Div. of Nuclear Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, 22100, Lund, Sweden;
10.National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA;
11.Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland;
12.IUTA e.v., Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology Unit, Duisburg, Germany;
13.Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA;
14.King’s College London, Environmental Research Group, London, UK;
15.Earth Systems Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO, USA;
16.Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA;
17.Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig, Germany;
18.Technische Universitat, M ¨ unchen, Germany;
19.Deutschen Zentrums fur Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany ;
20.Department of Environmental and Territorial Sciences, University of Milan-Bicocca & Department of Inorganic,Metallorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy ;
21.RTI, Research Triangle, NC, USA;
22.IDAEA-CSIC: Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDÆA), Spanish Research Council – CSIC,Barcelona, Spain
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Baumgardner, D ,Popovicheva, O ,Allan, J ,et al. Soot reference materials for instrument calibration and intercomparisons: a workshop summary with recommendations[J]. ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES,2012,5(8):1869-1887.
APA Baumgardner, D .,Popovicheva, O .,Allan, J .,Bernardoni, V .,Cao, J .,...&Viana, M .(2012).Soot reference materials for instrument calibration and intercomparisons: a workshop summary with recommendations.ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES,5(8),1869-1887.
MLA Baumgardner, D ,et al."Soot reference materials for instrument calibration and intercomparisons: a workshop summary with recommendations".ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES 5.8(2012):1869-1887.
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