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Carbonaceous aerosols in China: top-down constraints on primary sources and estimation of secondary contribution
Fu, TM (Fu, T. -M.)[1]; Cao, JJ (Cao, J. J.)[2]; Zhang, XY (Zhang, X. Y.)[3]; Lee, SC (Lee, S. C.)[4]; Zhang, Q (Zhang, Q.)[5]; Han, YM (Han, Y. M.)[2]; Qu, WJ (Qu, W. J.)[6]; Han, Z (Han, Z.)[7]; Zhang, R (Zhang, R.)[7]; Wang, YX (Wang, Y. X.)[5]; Chen, D (Chen, D.)[8]; Henze, DK (Henze, D. K.)[9]
2012-04-01
发表期刊ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS
卷号12期号:5页码:2725-2746
文章类型期刊论文
摘要

We simulated elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols in China and compared model results to surface measurements at Chinese rural and background sites, with the goal of deriving 'top-down' emission estimates of EC and OC, as well as better quantifying the secondary sources of OC. We included in the model state-of-the-science Chinese 'bottom-up' emission inventories for EC (1.92 TgC yr(-1)) and OC (3.95 TgC yr(-1)), as well as updated secondary OC formation pathways. The average simulated annual mean EC concentration at rural and background sites was 1.1 mu gC m(-3), 56% lower than the observed 2.5 mu gC m(-3). The average simulated annual mean OC concentration at rural and background sites was 3.4 mu gC m(-3), 76% lower than the observed 14 mu gC m(-3). Multiple regression to fit surface monthly mean EC observations at rural and background sites yielded the best estimate of Chinese EC source of 3.05 +/- 0.78 TgC yr(-1). Based on the top-down EC emission estimate and observed seasonal primary OC/EC ratios, we estimated Chinese OC emissions to be 6.67 +/- 1.30 TgC yr(-1). Using these top-down estimates, the simulated average annual mean EC concentration at rural and background sites was significantly improved to 1.9 mu gC m(-3). However, the model still significantly underestimated observed OC in all seasons (simulated average annual mean OC at rural and background sites was 5.4 mu gC m(-3)), with little skill in capturing the spatiotemporal variability. Secondary formation accounts for 21% of Chinese annual mean surface OC in the model, with isoprene being the most important precursor. In summer, as high as 62% of the observed surface OC may be due to secondary formation in eastern China. Our analysis points to four shortcomings in the current bottom-up inventories of Chinese carbonaceous aerosols: (1) the anthropogenic source is underestimated on a national scale, particularly for OC; (2) the spatiotemporal distributions of emissions are misrepresented; (3) there is a missing source in western China, likely associated with the use of biofuels or other low-quality fuels for heating; and (4) sources in fall are not well represented, either because the seasonal shifting of emissions and/or secondary formation are poorly captured or because specific fall emission events are missing. In addition, secondary production of OC in China is severely underestimated. More regional measurements with better spatiotemporal coverage are needed to resolve these shortcomings.

DOI10.5194/acp-12-2725-2012
收录类别SCI
语种英语
引用统计
文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.ieecas.cn/handle/361006/10141
专题粉尘与环境研究室
通讯作者Fu, TM (Fu, T. -M.)[1]
作者单位1.Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and Laboratory for Climate and Ocean-Atmosphere Studies, School ofPhysics, Peking University, Beijing, China;
2.State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Xi’an, China;
3.Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry, Centre for Atmosphere Watch & Services of CMA, Chinese Academy ofMeteorological Sciences, Beijing, China;
4.Research Centre of Urban Environmental Technology and Management, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering,Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong;
5.Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Institute for GlobalChange Studies, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China;
6.Physical Oceanography Laboratory, Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction and Climate Laboratory, Ocean University of China,Qingdao, China;
7.Key Laboratory of Regional Climate-Environment Research for Temperate East Asia, Institute of Atmospheric Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China;
8.Department of Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, USA;
9.Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, USA
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GB/T 7714
Fu, TM ,Cao, JJ ,Zhang, XY ,et al. Carbonaceous aerosols in China: top-down constraints on primary sources and estimation of secondary contribution[J]. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS,2012,12(5):2725-2746.
APA Fu, TM .,Cao, JJ .,Zhang, XY .,Lee, SC .,Zhang, Q .,...&Henze, DK .(2012).Carbonaceous aerosols in China: top-down constraints on primary sources and estimation of secondary contribution.ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS,12(5),2725-2746.
MLA Fu, TM ,et al."Carbonaceous aerosols in China: top-down constraints on primary sources and estimation of secondary contribution".ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 12.5(2012):2725-2746.
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